X-Ray Mapping with Energy-Dispersive and Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry in the Scanning Electron Microscope: A Tutorial
Dale E. Newbury, David S. Bright
X-ray mapping is one of the most popular modes for displaying information obtained with x-ray spectrometry performed in the scanning electron microscope.Although the interpretation of x-ray images obtained with a modern digital control and recording system would seem to be straightforward and relatively trivial,there are significant pitfalls and limitations that can easily fool the unwary. Within an individual x-ray map, the observer can reasonably judge where theconcentration is lower or higher, at least for a group of contiguous pixels. Can such judgements be made among a set of maps of the same region for differentelements, or even for the same element from different regions of the same specimen? With current x-ray processing and display systems, the answers are generallyno. In fact, problems that can influence interpretation can arise at each stage of x-ray generation/emission, x-ray spectral collection, processing, and display. Theimpact of these problems differs significantly as a function of the levle of concentration of the constituents being mapped.
and Bright, D.
X-Ray Mapping with Energy-Dispersive and Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry in the Scanning Electron Microscope: A Tutorial, Microscopy and Microanalysis
(Accessed December 6, 2023)