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X-Ray Mapping with Energy-Dispersive and Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry in the Scanning Electron Microscope: A Tutorial

Published

Author(s)

Dale E. Newbury, David S. Bright

Abstract

X-ray mapping is one of the most popular modes for displaying information obtained with x-ray spectrometry performed in the scanning electron microscope.Although the interpretation of x-ray images obtained with a modern digital control and recording system would seem to be straightforward and relatively trivial,there are significant pitfalls and limitations that can easily fool the unwary. Within an individual x-ray map, the observer can reasonably judge where theconcentration is lower or higher, at least for a group of contiguous pixels. Can such judgements be made among a set of maps of the same region for differentelements, or even for the same element from different regions of the same specimen? With current x-ray processing and display systems, the answers are generallyno. In fact, problems that can influence interpretation can arise at each stage of x-ray generation/emission, x-ray spectral collection, processing, and display. Theimpact of these problems differs significantly as a function of the levle of concentration of the constituents being mapped.
Citation
Microscopy and Microanalysis
Volume
5
Issue
5

Keywords

compositional mapping, imaging, microanalysis, scanning electron microscope, x-ray mapping, x-ray spectrometry

Citation

Newbury, D. and Bright, D. (1999), X-Ray Mapping with Energy-Dispersive and Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry in the Scanning Electron Microscope: A Tutorial, Microscopy and Microanalysis (Accessed May 24, 2024)

Issues

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Created January 1, 1999, Updated February 17, 2017