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Welding Consumable Development for a Cryogenic (4K) Application



S F. Kane, A L. Farland, Thomas A. Siewert, Christopher N. McCowan


This paper summarizes the development and qualification of an appropriate welding consumable for a demanding cryogenic magnet application. It begins with a review of the research conducted on cryogenic fracture toughness of wrought and welded austenitic stainless steels. This research shows that certain elements of the composition have a powerful effect upon the steel's fracture toughness at 4 K. In particular, the higher oxygen content in the weld manifests itself as inclusions, which have a severe detrimental effect upon the fracture toughness. This one factor accounts for most of the difference in toughness between wrought and weld materials of similar composition, and is a function of the weld process. Also, welds enriched with manganese and nickel have demonstrated improved fracture toughness. These discoveries were combined in the development of a nitrogen- and manganese-modified, high-nickel stain-less-steel alloy. It produced gas metal arc welds with superior cryogenic mechanical properties (yield strength near 900 Mpa at 4 K and a Charpy V-notch impact energy near 140 J at 76 K) when the procedures were modified to reduce the oxygen content.
Welding Research Supplement


cryogenic, fracture toughness, gas metal arc welding, nickel, oxygen, welding


Kane, S. , Farland, A. , Siewert, T. and McCowan, C. (1999), Welding Consumable Development for a Cryogenic (4K) Application, Welding Research Supplement, [online], (Accessed May 27, 2024)


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Created July 31, 1999, Updated October 12, 2021