Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

In vivo testing of native α-conotoxins from the injected venom of Conus purpurascens


Frank Mari


α-conotoxins selectively inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and have been used as probes to study cholinergic pathways in vertebrates. Drosophila melanogaster expresses nAChRs in the CNS and is a suitable model to investigate the effects of alpha-conotoxins in vivo. Here we report the paired nanoinjection of native α-conotoxin PIA and two other novel α- conotoxins from the injected venom of Conus purpurascens and electrophysiological recordings of their effects on the giant fiber system (GFS) of D. melanogaster. αPIA, PIC and PIC[O7] caused differential disruption (αPIA > PIC > PIC[O7]) of the function of the giant fiber to dorsal longitudinal muscle (GF-DLM) pathway by inhibiting the Dα7 nAChR, a homolog to the vertebrate α7 nAChR.


venom, cone snails, alpha-conotoxins, giant fiber system, Drosophila


Mari, F. (1970), In vivo testing of native α-conotoxins from the injected venom of Conus purpurascens, Biochemistry (Accessed July 23, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created May 7, 2017, Updated January 27, 2020