Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Composites



Carl Simon Jr., Joseph M. Antonucci, D W. Liu, Drago Skrtic


Calcium phosphate-based biomaterials are being widely used as bone substitutes in dentistry as well as reconstructive and orthopedic surgery because of their generally accepted good biocompatibility, osteoconductivity and/or bone-bonding properties. Among these materials, anti-demineralizing/remineralizing amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based polymeric composites show promise in a number of dental applications. So far, substantial efforts have been made to improve their physicochemical and mechanical properties via either ACP surface-modification or polymer grafting. In this study, an investigation was made of the in vitro cytotoxic effects of a copolymer derived from the polymerization of a resin and the corresponding ACP composite utilizing cell culture techniques. Photo and dual cured polymer (mass fraction 60 %) derived from a resin comprising an ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate, urethane dimethacrylate, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate were formulated and admixed with a zirconia-ACP filler (mass fraction 40 %) to prepare the composite. Specimens were extracted in media overnight and then MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were cultured in the extracts for 3 d. Cytoxicity was evaluated by phase contrast microscopy and an enzymatic assay for mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity (Wst-1). Cellular response to the experimental ACP composite was compared to the cellular response to commercially available light-cure and dual-cure orthodontic adhesives formulated with similar aromatic and aliphatic mono- and di-methacryalte monomers. No adverse response regarding cell morphology or viability was observed with ACP composites compared to the copolymers or commercial adhesives, thereby supporting the hypothesis that these bioactive composites are biocompatible.
Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers
No. 3


amporphous calcium phosphate, cellular response, composites, cytotoxicity, extract test


Simon Jr., C. , Antonucci, J. , Liu, D. and Skrtic, D. (2005), In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Composites, Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers, [online], (Accessed June 15, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created April 30, 2005, Updated October 12, 2021