Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Virtual Factory Project Tackles Integration of Supply Chain Systems



J. Cartwright, J. Friedman, J. Minchella, Barbara L. Goldstein


The unifaction of robust enabling technologies of the Internet and ubiquitous access is resulting in market dynamics that change the way business is being conducted by electronic manufacturing services (EMS) providers. OEM/EMS enterprise relationships are no longer one-to-one or even one-to-many. Instead they are complex, distributed relationships in which many strategic partners, downstream suppliers and customers need to collaborate and share data in order to compete effectively. These new relationships, coupled with shrinking market windows and other dynamic market influences, have expiated the birth of the virtual enterprise or e-factory. While greater reliance on a supply network provides flexibility in response to unpredictable market conditions, the serious lack of standards for information integration among cross-company and inter-company systems can limit any potential efficiency gains. The National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (NEMI) has created the Virtual Factory Information Interchange Project (VFIIP) to address some of the challenges of the emerging virtual enterprise or e-factory. Focusing on factory information systems (FIS) integration between OEM's and their EMS providers, the overall purpose of this project is to define standards which, when implemented, will reduce both the time and the cost required to establish and maintain information exchange partnerships across the manufacturing supply web.
Future EMS International (UK journal), Sect. 3


National Electronics Manufacturing Initi, oursourcing, supply chain integration, virtual factory


Cartwright, J. , Friedman, J. , Minchella, J. and Goldstein, B. (1999), Virtual Factory Project Tackles Integration of Supply Chain Systems, Future EMS International (UK journal), Sect. 3, [online], (Accessed May 23, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created December 31, 1998, Updated October 12, 2021