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Utilizing commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems to provide grid services: A review



Yangyang Fu, Amanda Pertzborn, Zheng O'Neill, Steven T. Bushby, Jin Wen


The modern power grid faces multiple challenges due to an increase in the adoption of renewable generation, such as dynamically balancing supply and demand at different time scales. Demand side management in buildings plays a vital role in achieving this balance because buildings can provide grid services through a variety of building assets. However, the development of grid-interactive, efficient buildings is still in its infancy, and a systematic and holistic understanding of grid service delivery strategies in terms of energy efficiency, load shifting, load shedding and load modulating is still limited. This paper is a comprehensive review of the development and application of building-level control strategies for utilizing heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems to provide grid services. These strategies have been investigated through numerical and experimental studies. Control algorithms, such as heuristic rule-based control and model-based control, have been used to enable the automatic control delivery of grid services. The advantages and disadvantages of the strategies are summarized and discussed. Research trends are also identified, which include considering predicted mean vote-based and occupant-based thermal comfort, modeling of occupant behavior, integrating power grid operations with building control, and combining different demand flexibility modes in the control design.
Applied Energy


grid-interactive efficient buildings, grid service, delivery control strategy, rule-based control, model-based control, building-to-grid integration


Fu, Y. , Pertzborn, A. , O'Neill, Z. , Bushby, S. and Wen, J. (2021), Utilizing commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems to provide grid services: A review, Applied Energy, [online],, (Accessed June 19, 2024)


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Created November 10, 2021, Updated November 29, 2022