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Using temperature dependent fluorescence to evaluate singlet fission pathways in tetracene single crystals



Chad D. Cruz, Eric L. Chronister, Christopher Bardeen


The temperature dependent fluorescence spectrum, decay rate and spin quantum beats are examined in single tetracene crystals to gain insight into the mechanism of singlet fission. Over the temperature range 250-500 K, the vibronic lineshape of the emission indicates that the singlet exciton becomes localized at 400 K. The fission process is insensitive to this localization and exhibits Arrhenius behavior with an activation energy of 550±50 cm-1. The damping rate of the triplet pair spin quantum beats in the delayed fluorescence also exhibits an Arrhenius temperature dependence with an activation energy of 165±70 cm-1. All the data for T>250 K are consistent with direct production of a spatially separated 1(T....T) state via a thermally activated process, analogous to spontaneous parametric downconversion of photons. For temperatures in the range 20-250 K, the singlet exciton continues to undergo a rapid decay on the order of 200 ps, leaving a red-shifted emission that decays on the order of 100 ns. At very long times (1 s) a delayed fluorescence component corresponding to the original S1 state can still be resolved, unlike in polycrystalline films. A kinetic analysis shows that the redshifted emission seen at lower temperatures cannot be an intermediate in the triplet production. When considered in the context of other results, our data suggest that the production of triplets in tetracene for temperatures below 250 K is a complex process that is probably sensitive to the presence of structural defects.
The Journal of Chemical Physics


Cruz, C. , Chronister, E. and Bardeen, C. (2020), Using temperature dependent fluorescence to evaluate singlet fission pathways in tetracene single crystals, The Journal of Chemical Physics, [online], (Accessed February 28, 2024)
Created December 20, 2020, Updated March 1, 2021