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The U.S. Biomanufacturing Economy: Value Added, Supply Chains, Cost, Sustainability, and Efficiency



Douglas Thomas


This report estimates biomanufacturing (manufactured products made of biomaterials) and advanced biomanufacturing (products manufactured using activities that grow biological molecules and materials along with activities that alter biological material using non-mechanical means) value added in ways that make it consistent with estimates of U.S. GDP. Advanced biomanufacturing is estimated as being $94.6 billion while total biomanufacturing is $438.8 billion. When including supply chain items and other indirect value added, the total biomanufacturing industry is $1363.8 billion and advanced biomanufacturing is $259.9 billion. These estimates include biomanufacturing items that are excluded from estimates of the bioeconomy made by other organizations and/or individuals. Other U.S. estimates have also been inconsistent with measures of GDP or value added. As calculated using NIST's Manufacturing Cost Guide, the biomanufacturing industry impact accounts for 43 % of the total U.S. impact while advanced biomanufacturing is 6.4 %. This report also examines the assets, material flow time, fuels, and electricity used in biomanufacturing.
Advanced Manufacturing Series (NIST AMS) - 100-52
Report Number


manufacturing, biomanufacturing, bioeconomy, value added, sustainability, efficiency, energy, flow time


Thomas, D. (2023), The U.S. Biomanufacturing Economy: Value Added, Supply Chains, Cost, Sustainability, and Efficiency, Advanced Manufacturing Series (NIST AMS), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online],, (Accessed April 12, 2024)
Created June 23, 2023