Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Unwanted Combustion Enhancement by C6F12O Fire Suppressant



Gregory T. Linteris, Valeri I. Babushok, Peter B. Sunderland, Fumiaki Takahashi, Viswanath R. Katta, Oliver Meier


Several agents are under consideration to replace CF3Br for use in suppressing fires in aircraft cargo bays. In a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) performance test simulating the explosion of an aerosol can, however, the replacements, when added at sub‐inerting concentrations, have all been found to create higher pressure rise than with no agent, hence failing the test. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations as well as perfectly‐stirred reactor (PSR) simulations with detailed reaction kinetics, are performed for one of these agents, C6F12O (Novec 1230), to understand the reasons for the unexpected enhanced combustion rather than suppression. The high pressure rise with added agent is shown to depend on the amount of agent, and can only occur if a large fraction of the available oxidizer in the chamber is consumed, corresponding to stoichiometric proportions of fuel, oxygen, and agent. A kinetic model for the reaction of C6F12O in hydrocarbon‐air flames has been developed. Stirred‐reactor simulations predict that at higher agent loadings, the inhibition effectiveness of C6F12O is insensitive to the overall stoichiometry, and the marginal inhibitory effect of the agent is greatly reduced, so that the mixture remains flammable over a wide range of conditions corresponding to those of the FAA test. The present findings are consistent with and support the earlier analyses for C2HF5 and CF3Br, which were also evaluated in the FAA test.
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute


C6F12O, Novec 1230, Cargo Bay Fire Suppression, Halon Replacements, CF3Br


Linteris, G. , Babushok, V. , Sunderland, P. , Takahashi, F. , Katta, V. and Meier, O. (2012), Unwanted Combustion Enhancement by C6F12O Fire Suppressant, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, [online], (Accessed June 17, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created August 7, 2012, Updated February 19, 2017