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Uncertainty of Large-Signal Measurements Under Variable Load Conditions



Konstanty Lukasik, Jerome Cheron, Gustavo Avolio, Arkadiusz Lewandowski, Dylan Williams, Wojciech Waitr, Dominique Schreurs


We thoroughly investigate the uncertainty of large-signal measurements when load conditions at the fundamental frequency change. In particular, we evaluate uncertainties of the incident a2 and scattered b2 frequency-domain spectra. They are of particular interest since a load-pull tuner directly affects them. Then, their dependence on a varying load reflection coefficient is discussed. Both its magnitude and phase are considered. In the analysis, multiple other sources of uncertainty are included. To the best knowledge of the authors, such an analysis is performed for the first time. Moreover, we show how uncertainties of figures of merit are affected by errors present in measurements of frequency spectra.
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques


Lukasik, K. , Cheron, J. , Avolio, G. , Lewandowski, A. , Williams, D. , Waitr, W. and Schreurs, D. (2020), Uncertainty of Large-Signal Measurements Under Variable Load Conditions, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, [online], (Accessed June 13, 2024)


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Created August 7, 2020, Updated October 12, 2021