Uncertainty of Large-Signal Measurements Under Variable Load Conditions
Konstanty Lukasik, Jerome G. Cheron, Gustavo Avolio, Arkadiusz Lewandowski, Dylan F. Williams, Wojciech Waitr, Dominique Schreurs
We thoroughly investigate the uncertainty of large-signal measurements when load conditions at the fundamental frequency change. In particular, we evaluate uncertainties of the incident a2 and scattered b2 frequency-domain spectra. They are of particular interest since a load-pull tuner directly affects them. Then, their dependence on a varying load reflection coefficient is discussed. Both its magnitude and phase are considered. In the analysis, multiple other sources of uncertainty are included. To the best knowledge of the authors, such an analysis is performed for the first time. Moreover, we show how uncertainties of figures of merit are affected by errors present in measurements of frequency spectra.
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques