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Uncertainties in Steel Temperatures during Fire



Dilip K. Banerjee


In order to determine the fire resistance of steel members, steel temperatures must be estimated with a high confidence. There can be considerable uncertainty in temperatures of both protected and unprotected steels during fire exposure. This is due to uncertainty in the thermal boundary conditions and thermophysical properties. In this study, uncertainties in both unprotected and protected steel temperatures are estimated with the use of a Monte Carlo method in conjunction with a “Lumped Heat Capacity” approach for estimating steel temperatures. Computed data are compared with experimental measurements conducted during Cardington fire tests (bare steel) and NIST World Trade Center tests (protected). Reasonable agreement was achieved.
Fire Safety Journal


uncertainty, heat transfer model, Monte Carlo method, fire, steel, composite floor system, fire resistance tests.


Banerjee, D. (2013), Uncertainties in Steel Temperatures during Fire, Fire Safety Journal (Accessed July 20, 2024)


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Created August 4, 2013, Updated December 9, 2019