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A Total Break of the 3WISE Digital Signature Scheme



Daniel Smith-Tone


A new batch of ''complete and proper'' digital signature schemes submissions has recently been published NIST as part of its process for establishing post-quantum cryptographic standards. This note communicates an attack on the 3WISE digital signature scheme that the submitters did not wish to withdraw after NIST communicated it to them. While the 3WISE digital signature scheme is based on a collection of cubic maps which are naturally modeled as symmetric 3-tensors and 3-tensor rank is a difficult problem, the multivariate signature scheme is still vulnerable to MinRank attacks upon projection. We are able to break the NIST security level I parameters within a few seconds. Since the attack is polynomial time, there is no reparametrization resulting in a secure scheme.
Cryptology Eprint Archive


Multivariate Cryptography, MinRank, Cryptanalysis


Smith-Tone, D. (2023), A Total Break of the 3WISE Digital Signature Scheme, Cryptology Eprint Archive, [online],, (Accessed June 19, 2024)


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Created October 9, 2023, Updated October 13, 2023