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TMA: An Efficient Timestamp-Based Monitoring Approach to Test Timing Constraints of Cyber-Physical Systems



Mohammadreza Mehrabian, Mohammad Khayatian, Ahmed Mousa, Aviral Shrivastava, Patricia Derler, Ya-Shian Li-Baboud, Dhananjay Anand, Edward Griffor, Hugo Andrade, John Eidson


Formal specifications on temporal behavior of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) is essential for verification of performance and safety. Existing solutions for verifying the satisfaction of temporal constraints on a CPS are compute and resource intensive since they require buffering signals from the CPS prior to constraint checking. We present an online, timestamp-based approach, TMA, for monitoring the timing constraints in CPS, that significantly reduces the computation and resource requirements by processing the timestamps of events. The signal buffer size bears geometric relationship to the dimension of the signal vector, the time interval being considered and the sampling resolution. Since monitoring logic is typically implemented on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) (because of the need to monitor several signals simultaneously), the space required to store the buffered data becomes the limiting resource. The monitoring logic for the seven timing constraints on the Flying Paster application, of the counters approach could not be synthesized on the FPGA, when sampling at 20 kHz, because the memory requirement exceeded the hardware availability. In constrast, the test code generated using the proposed method, TMA, was able to be synthesized, and utilized 11.5% of flip-flops (FFs) and 11% of look-up tables (LUTs).
Proceedings Title
2018 55th ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference
Conference Dates
June 24-28, 2018
Conference Location
San Francisco, CA, US
Conference Title
Design Automation Conference


online verification, CPS, temporal logic


Mehrabian, M. , Khayatian, M. , Mousa, A. , Shrivastava, A. , Derler, P. , Li-Baboud, Y. , Anand, D. , Griffor, E. , Andrade, H. and Eidson, J. (2018), TMA: An Efficient Timestamp-Based Monitoring Approach to Test Timing Constraints of Cyber-Physical Systems, 2018 55th ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference, San Francisco, CA, US, [online],, (Accessed April 14, 2024)
Created June 28, 2018, Updated October 12, 2021