Time Measurement

Published: February 03, 2014


Michael A. Lombardi


An overview of time metrology, with emphasis on time interval measurements, and time synchronization. It covers the evolution of clocks and timekeeping, time scales, the fundamentals of time measurement, and the various time transfer technique used to synchronize and compare clocks at remote locations. The original version of this chapter was written in 1997 (published in 1999), and about 70% of the material has been revised for the forthcoming 2nd edition of the "Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook".
Citation: The Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook (2nd edition)
Volume: Ch. 41
Publisher Info: CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL
Pub Type: Book Chapters


atomic clocks, GPS, time, time scale, time transfer
Created February 03, 2014, Updated February 19, 2017