Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

A Thermodynamic Analysis of Refilling of a Hydrogen Tank



Jiann C. Yang


A thermodynamic analysis of refilling of a gaseous hydrogen fuel tank is described. This study may lend itself to the applications of refilling a hydrogen storage tank onboard a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle. The gaseous hydrogen is treated as an ideal or a non-ideal gas. The refilling process is analyzed based on adiabatic, isothermal, or diathermal condition of the tank. A constant feed-rate is assumed in the analysis. The thermodynamic state of the feed stream also remains constant during refilling. Ideal-gas assumption results in simple closed-form expressions for tank temperature and pressure and other parameters. The non-ideality behavior of high-pressure gaseous hydrogen is addressed using the newly developed equation of state for normal hydrogen, which is based on the reduced Helmholtz free energy formulation. Sample calculations are presented using initial tank and feed stream conditions commensurate to practical vehicular applications. Ideal-gas assumption always results in under-prediction of the tank temperature and pressure irrespective of the refilling condition.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy


Hydrogen, Refill, Thermodynamics


Yang, J. (2009), A Thermodynamic Analysis of Refilling of a Hydrogen Tank, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, [online], (Accessed June 23, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created August 31, 2009, Updated June 2, 2021