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Thermal Noise and Noise Measurements a 2010 Update



Anthony R. Kerr, James P. Randa


1. Introduction 2. Noise Temperature as a Measure of Noise Power 3. Available Noise Power from a Resistor 4. The Zero-Point Noise Term and the Minimum Noise of an Amplifier 5. Noise-Temperature Standards and Measurement of One-Port Noise Sources 6. Measurement of Amplifier and Receiver Noise Temperature 7. Noise in Mixers 8. Thermal Noise in Networks and Attenuators 9. Noise Figure, Excess Noise Ratio, and the Standard Reference Temperature, T0 10. Microwave Brightness Temperature 11. Conclusions References
IEEE Microwave Magazine


brightness temperature, noise, noise temperature, vacuum fluctuations


Kerr, A. and Randa, J. (2010), Thermal Noise and Noise Measurements a 2010 Update, IEEE Microwave Magazine, [online], (Accessed June 24, 2024)


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Created September 30, 2010, Updated October 12, 2021