Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Testing and Analysis of Steel and Concrete Beam-Column Assemblies under a Column Removal Scenario



Fahim H. Sadek, Joseph Main, Hai S. Lew, Yihai Bao


This paper presents an experimental and computational assessment of the performance of steel and reinforced concrete beam-column assemblies under vertical displacement of a center column, simulating a column removal scenario. The assemblies represent portions of structural framing systems designed as Intermediate Moment Frames (IMFs) and Special Moment Frames (SMFs), for Seismic Design Categories C and D, respectively. The steel IMF assembly incorporates welded, unreinforced flange, bolted web connections and the steel SMF assembly incorporates reduced beam section connections. The concrete IMF and SMF assemblies were designed and detailed in accordance with ACI 318-02 requirements. Each full-scale assembly comprises two beam spans and three columns, and downward displacements of the center column are imposed until failure. The study provides insight into the behavior and failure modes of the assemblies, including the development of catenary action. Both detailed and reduced finite element models are developed, which capture the primary response characteristics and failure modes. Analyses with the reduced models can be executed rapidly without loss of accuracy, facilitating implementation in models of entire structural systems.
Journal of Structural Engineering-ASCE


Buildings, Concrete structures, Finite element method, Full-scale tests, Nonlinear analysis, Progressive collapse, Seismic design, Steel structures


Sadek, F. , Main, J. , Lew, H. and Bao, Y. (2011), Testing and Analysis of Steel and Concrete Beam-Column Assemblies under a Column Removal Scenario, Journal of Structural Engineering-ASCE, [online], (Accessed April 12, 2024)
Created August 31, 2011, Updated October 12, 2021