Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Test method for measuring the electrical output of electroshock weapons



Nicholas G. Paulter Jr., David M. Jenkins, Norimitsu Ichikawa, Michael Leonesio


Electroshock weapons (ESWs) have become a ubiquitous component of weapons used in the arsenal of domestic law enforcement (LE) agencies and the military around the world. It is a major contributor to the escalation of force policies and procedures of many LE agencies. ESWs function by providing a high-voltage low-current electrical shock that, when discharged into a live (typically human) target, can temporarily incapacitate that target. Consequently, it is important to accurately measure the output of the ESW to ensure it is operating properly. Moreover, accurate and standardized measurements of ESW output support collaborative transfer of information, thus facilitating the advancement of the knowledge of physiological ESW effects, promoting the advancement of the technology for safe and effective use, and facilitating accurate comparison of ESW performance.
Journal of Biomedical Systems & Emerging Technologies


conducted energy weapon, electroshock, electroshock weapon, ESW, IEC, incapacitation, neuromuscular disruption, standard test method, weapon


Paulter, N. , Jenkins, D. , Ichikawa, N. and Leonesio, M. (2016), Test method for measuring the electrical output of electroshock weapons, Journal of Biomedical Systems & Emerging Technologies, [online], (Accessed June 20, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created July 25, 2016, Updated April 20, 2017