Ternary Blends for Controlling Cost and Carbon Content
Dale P. Bentz
While extensive research has been performed on high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete since the mid-1980s,1 a recent survey showed that fly ash comprises only about 15% of the total cementitious material used in ready mixed concrete in the United States.2 The survey also indicated that greater use of fly ash is limited by an ongoing dominance of prescriptive specifications over performance specifications, as well as by concerns over early-age performance of HVFA mixtures. A broader shift toward performance specifications will depend largely on cultural changes within the engineering community changes that may naturally occur with ongoing education, experience, and time. Concerns over early-age performance of HVFA, which are the focus of this article, may be allayed through the development of innovative mixtures.