Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

A Tabletop X-Ray Tomography Instrument for Nanometer-Scale Imaging: Reconstructions



Zachary H. Levine, Bradley Alpert, Amber Dagel, Joseph Fowler, Edward Jiminez, Nathan J. Nakamura, Daniel Swetz, Paul Szypryt, Kyle Thompson, Joel Ullom


We show three-dimensional reconstructions of a region of an integrated circuit from a 130 nm copper process. The reconstructions employ x-ray computed tomography, measured with a new and innovative high-magnification x-ray microscope. The instrument uses a focused electron beam to generate x-rays in a 100 nm spot and energy-resolving x-ray detectors that minimize backgrounds and hold promise for the identification of materials within the sample. The x-ray generation target, a layer of platinum, is fabricated on the circuit wafer itself. A region of interest is imaged from a limited range of angles and without physically removing the region from the larger circuit. The reconstruction is consistent with the circuit's design file.
Microsystems & Nanoengineering


Tomography , integrated circuit interconnects , x-ray microscope


Levine, Z. , Alpert, B. , Dagel, A. , Fowler, J. , Jiminez, E. , Nakamura, N. , Swetz, D. , Szypryt, P. , Thompson, K. and Ullom, J. (2023), A Tabletop X-Ray Tomography Instrument for Nanometer-Scale Imaging: Reconstructions, Microsystems & Nanoengineering, [online],, (Accessed April 24, 2024)
Created April 14, 2023