Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

System Level Evaluation of UE-to-Network Relays in D2D-enabled LTE Networks



Samantha M. Gamboa Quintiliani, Raghav Thanigaivel, Richard A. Rouil


The 3rd Generation Partnership Program (3GPP) introduced UE-to-Network Relays in Long Term Evolution (LTE) Release 13. This technology leverages Proximity Services (ProSe), i.e., the LTE Device-to-device (D2D) communication functionality, to provide user-based relays where a User Equipment (UE) accesses the LTE network by connecting directly to another UE. This functionality aims at improving cell edge capacity and extend network coverage for out-of- coverage UEs. In this paper, we present the extension of our ns-3 ProSe module to support system level simulations of the UE-to-Network Relay functionality, and we analyze the performance of different protocols involved on it. In particular, we focus on UE-to-Network Relay discovery, one-to-one direct link establishment between UEs, and end-to-end communication performance. We finally highlight some of the trade-offs to consider when configuring and deploying UE-to-Network Relay enabled UEs.
Proceedings Title
IEEE International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and
Conference Dates
September 11-13, 2019
Conference Location
Limassol, -1


3GPP, LTE, Device-to-Device Communication, Network Modeling, UE-to-Network Relay, ns-3
Created September 13, 2019, Updated January 27, 2020