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System Level Evaluation of UE-to-Network Relays in D2D-enabled LTE Networks



Samantha M. Gamboa Quintiliani, Raghav Thanigaivel, Richard A. Rouil


The 3rd Generation Partnership Program (3GPP) introduced UE-to-Network Relays in Long Term Evolution (LTE) Release 13. This technology leverages Proximity Services (ProSe), i.e., the LTE Device-to-device (D2D) communication functionality, to provide user-based relays where a User Equipment (UE) accesses the LTE network by connecting directly to another UE. This functionality aims at improving cell edge capacity and extend network coverage for out-of- coverage UEs. In this paper, we present the extension of our ns-3 ProSe module to support system level simulations of the UE-to-Network Relay functionality, and we analyze the performance of different protocols involved on it. In particular, we focus on UE-to-Network Relay discovery, one-to-one direct link establishment between UEs, and end-to-end communication performance. We finally highlight some of the trade-offs to consider when configuring and deploying UE-to-Network Relay enabled UEs.
Proceedings Title
IEEE International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and
Conference Dates
September 11-13, 2019
Conference Location
Limassol, -1


3GPP, LTE, Device-to-Device Communication, Network Modeling, UE-to-Network Relay, ns-3
Created September 12, 2019, Updated October 21, 2020