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Survey of P-Block Metal Additives for Superconformal Cu Deposition in an Alkaline Electrolyte



Daniel Josell, Thomas P. Moffat


Catalysis of Cu deposition from a near-neutral Cu2+ complexed electrolyte is examined using Bi3+, Pb2+ and Tl+ additives that were selected based on their known ability to catalyze Au deposition in near neutral pH gold sulfite electrolytes. Where appropriate, the ability of these electrolytes to yield superconformal filling of recessed features is also briefly examined. Voltammetry reveals strong acceleration of Cu deposition by Bi3+ additions while indication of superconformal filling accompanied by unusual microstructural transitions are evident in cross-sectioned specimens examined by scanning electron microscope. Results are discussed in the context of behaviors observed in heavy metal additive-containing gold sulfite electrolytes.
Journal of the Electrochemical Society


Electroplating, Copper, Superconformal, EDTA, Bismuth, Lead, Thallium


Josell, D. and Moffat, T. (2022), Survey of P-Block Metal Additives for Superconformal Cu Deposition in an Alkaline Electrolyte, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, [online],, (Accessed June 15, 2024)


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Created September 7, 2022, Updated January 25, 2023