It is generally recognized that the capillary forces associated with internal and external interfaces affect both the shapes of liquid-vapor surfaces and wetting of a solid by a liquid. It is less commonly understood that the same phenomenology often applies equally well to solid-solid or solid-vapor interfaces.The fundamental quantity governing capillary phenomena is the excess free energy associated with a unit area of interface. In what follows we shall show how this fundamental quantity determines the shape of increasingly complex bodies: spheres, wires, thin films and multilayers composed of liquids or solids. Crystal anisotropy is not considered here; all interfaces and surfaces are assumed isotropic.
capillary, interfaces, multilayers, thin films
and Spaepen, F.
Surfaces, Interfaces, and Changing Shapes, Mrs Bulletin
(Accessed June 5, 2023)