Superconformal electrodeposition of copper is explained by the recently developed curvature enhanced accelerator coverage (CEAC) mechanism. The model stipulates that 1. the growth velocity is proportional to the local accelerator, or catalyst, surface coverage and 2. the catalyst remains segregated at the metal/electrolyte interface during copper deposition. For growth on non-planar geometries this leads to enrichment of the catalyst on advancing concave surfaces and dilution on advancing convex sections; thereby giving rise to bottom-up superfilling of submicrometer trenches and vias. In this paper the robustness of the CEAC model is demonstrated by characterizing the kinetics of catalyst accumulation and consumption is a series of electroanalytical experiments on planar electrodes. The CEAC model is then used to successfully predict interface shape evolution during feature filling in a variety of experiments using no adjustable parameters.
Electrochemical Society, Meeting | 202nd | | Electrochemical Society
October 1, 2002
copper plating, damascence plating, metallization, microelectronics, superconformal film growth, superfilling
, Wheeler, D.
and Josell, D.
Superconformal Film Growth, Electrochemical Society, Meeting | 202nd | | Electrochemical Society
(Accessed June 6, 2023)