Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Sub-Wavelength Resonators: On the use of Metafilms to Overcome the λ/2 size limit



Christopher L. Holloway, Derik Love, Edward E. Kuester, Alesandro Salandrino, Nader Engheta


Metamaterials, in particular, double negative materials, have been used in the design of electromagnetic resonators as a means to overcome the classical $\lambda/2$ requirement. The surface equivalent of a metamaterial is a so-called metafilm, and is essentially a surface distribution of electrically small scatterers characterized by electric- and magnetic-polarizability densities. In this paper we illustrated how metafilms can be used to overcome the λ/2 size limit in order to design resonators of any desired dimension. We present expressions that relate the needed polarizaibility densities of the scatters on the metafilm to achieve any desired resonator size. To validate the analytical results in this paper, we show comparisons with a full-wave simulation of a resonator with a metafilm. The results in this paper are in principle scalable; that is, the dimensions of the scatterers can range from relatively large to relativity small depending on the frequencies of interest.
Physical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics)


metafilm, metamaterial, polarizability densities, resonators: generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTC), sub-wavelength cavities


Holloway, C. , Love, D. , Kuester, E. , Salandrino, A. and Engheta, N. (2008), Sub-Wavelength Resonators: On the use of Metafilms to Overcome the λ/2 size limit, Physical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics), [online], (Accessed June 15, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created February 29, 2008, Updated October 12, 2021