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Sub-GHz Resolution Line-by-Line Pulse Shaper for Driving Josephson Junctions



Dahyeon Lee, Takuma Nakamura, Andrew Metcalf, Nathan Flowers-Jacobs, Anna Fox, Paul Dresselhaus, Franklyn Quinlan


We demonstrate a sub-GHz resolution, fully programmable Fourier-domain pulse shaper capable of generating arbitrary optical pulse patterns. This high resolution allows line-by-line pulse shaping of a 1 GHz comb with a span as large as 1 THz, which represents the highest resolution programmable line-by-line pulse shaping to our knowledge. Linear optical sampling with a dual-comb system confirms independent control of 1 GHz-spaced optical lines, and the low phase noise of the pulse shaper is characterized. We apply the pulse shaper as an optical drive for an array of Josephson junctions operating at a temperature of 4 K, where cryogenic photodetection of pulse doublets with user-defined separation characterizes the Josephson junction response. Furthermore, we demonstrate a pulse-density modulation pattern of 4 ps duration optical pulses that can serve as the high bandwidth drive of a quantum-based Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer (JAWS). This represents an important step towards the realization of high power and high spectral purity AC voltage standards at gigahertz frequencies without requiring 100 GHz bandwidth driving electronics.
APL Photonics


Lee, D. , Nakamura, T. , Metcalf, A. , Flowers-Jacobs, N. , Fox, A. , Dresselhaus, P. and Quinlan, F. (2023), Sub-GHz Resolution Line-by-Line Pulse Shaper for Driving Josephson Junctions, APL Photonics, [online],, (Accessed June 25, 2024)


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Created August 29, 2023, Updated June 7, 2024