Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Structural Analysis of a High-Rise Composite Frame Exposed to Fire



Dat Duthinh, Kuldeep Prasad


This paper presents a simplified, planar analysis of World Trade Center Tower 1 (WTC1), starting from a computer simulation of the fire using computational fluid dynamics, and progressing through a thermal and a structural analysis of the damaged structure. Two extreme situations were investigated: the first, on the North face of the tower, accounted for damage to the structure caused by the airplane impact in the form of supple-mental load transferred from the adjacent damaged columns; and the second, on the South face, where the fire was most intense, assumed complete damage to the thermal insulation. Whereas the North face appeared stable in the analysis, the South face showed floor truss sequential failure leading to large sag and high tension demand that could have exceeded the capacity of the floor-to-column connections.


fire, nonlinear finite-element analysis, steel-concrete cmposite, structure, World Trade Center


Duthinh, D. and Prasad, K. (2017), Structural Analysis of a High-Rise Composite Frame Exposed to Fire, ASCE (Accessed July 15, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created February 19, 2017