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Strategies for Parallel Markup



Bruce R. Miller


Cross-referenced parallel markup for mathematics allows the combination of both presentation and content representations while associating the components of each. Interesting applications are enabled by such an arrangement, such as interaction with parts of the presentation to manipulate and querying the corresponding content, and enhanced search indexing. Although the idea of such markup is hardly new, effective techniques for creating and manipulating it are more difficult than it appears. Since the structures and tokens in the two formats often do not correspond one-to-one, decisions and heuristics must be developed to determine in which way each component refers to and is referred to by components of the other representation. Conversion between fine and coarse rained parallel markup complicates ID assignments. In this paper, we will describe the techniques eveloped for \LaTeXML, a \TeX/\LaTeX to XML converter, to create cross-referenced parallel MathML. While we do not yet consider \LaTeXML's content MathML to be useful, the current effort is a step towards that continuing goal.
Proceedings Title
Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Intelligent Computer Mathematics
Conference Dates
July 13-17, 2015
Conference Location
Washington, DC, US
Conference Title
Conference On Intelligent Computer Mathematics


Mathematical Knowledge Management, MathML, presentation and content MathML, parallel markup, TeX conversion


Miller, B. (2015), Strategies for Parallel Markup, Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Intelligent Computer Mathematics, Washington, DC, US, [online],, (Accessed March 23, 2023)
Created July 12, 2015, Updated April 12, 2022