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Statistical Methods for Analyzing Color Differences



Maria E. Nadal, Carl C. Miller, Hugh Fairman


Multi-valued measurands, such as spectral reflectance or transmission, tristimulus values, are usually analyzed by reducing the data to a single-valued parameter, such as color difference. The variations of sets of color differences are non-normal distributed. This paper compares five statistical methods to determine the 95% confidence interval on three data sets of color differences.
Color Research and Application


ASTM, Color Differences, Color Uncertainties, Color Values, Interlabolatory study


Nadal, M. , Miller, C. and Fairman, H. (2011), Statistical Methods for Analyzing Color Differences, Color Research and Application, [online], (Accessed May 29, 2024)


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Created June 2, 2011, Updated November 10, 2018