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Standard Reference Materials: The Certification of 100 mm Diameter Silicon Resistivity SRMs 2541 through 2547 Using Dual-Configuration Four-Point Probe Measurements



James R. Ehrstein, C M. Croarkin


This report documents the selection of material, the certification procedure and its control, and the analysis of measurement uncertainty for a family of new and improved Standards Reference Materials for Sheet resistance and resistivity of silicon wafers, SRMs 2451 through 2547, covering the resistivity range 0.01 Ω} . cm through 200 Ω} . cm. These SRMs, made from 100 mm diameter silicon, replace previous SRM sets 1521 thorugh 1523, which used 50.8 mm (2 in.) diameter silicon at the same nominal resistivity levels. This revised report replaces the original report issued August 1997 and contains new appendices 7 and 8 that detail the data analyses of SRMs 2543 and 2544. These appendices were not available at the time the original report was issued. The certification of the new SRMs uses a dual-configuration four-point probe procedure rather than the single-configuration procedure of ASTM F84, as used for previous SRMs. The new SRMs offer better handling compatibility with current user instrumentation, better uniformity of wafer thickness and of resistivity, more extensive spatial characterization of the near-center wafer resistivity, and reduced measurement uncertainty compared to the SRMs they replace. The general procedures for the certification measurements, the control of the certification process, and the analysis of the results are based on experience gained from numerous preliminary experiments that allowed evaluation of the importance and relative magnitude of many possible measurement effects. The validity and effectiveness of the resulting certification and control procedures were tested during the analysis of results from the first of the SRMs to be certified, that at 200 Ω} . cm. The body of this report details the background and principles of the certification process and the approach to analyzing the experimental data needed to calculate the uncertainty of the certified values. This report details the evaluation of underlying com
Special Publication (NIST SP) -


four-point probe, resistivity, semiconductor, silicon, SRM, standards


Ehrstein, J. and Croarkin, C. (1999), Standard Reference Materials: The Certification of 100 mm Diameter Silicon Resistivity SRMs 2541 through 2547 Using Dual-Configuration Four-Point Probe Measurements, Special Publication (NIST SP), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (Accessed June 14, 2024)


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Created May 31, 1999, Updated October 12, 2021