Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Stacked Niobium-MoSi2-Niobium Josephson Junctions for AC Voltage Standards



Paul Dresselhaus, Yonuk Chong, Samuel Benz


Superconductor-normal metal-superconductor (SNS) Josephson junctions have proven to be a critical technology for voltage standards. NIST has used SNS junctions for both programmable DC and AC voltage standards. Previous devices have primarily used PdAu as a normal metal barrier material. In this paper we present results of circuits having MoSi2 barriers. The main advantages of MoSi2 are that it can be etched in a low energy plasma, which enables the fabrication of vertically stacked junctions, and the reproducibility of its barriers produces consistent electrical properties. Stacking enables the junctions to be packed more densely, thus increasing design flexibility and margins for the microwave circuits. In this work, results are presented from two and three junction stacks for application to ac Josephson voltage standards.
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity


Digital-analog conversion, Josephson arrays, Superconducting devices, Superconducting films, Thin film devices


Dresselhaus, P. , Chong, Y. and Benz, S. (2005), Stacked Niobium-MoSi<sub>2</sub>-Niobium Josephson Junctions for AC Voltage Standards, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, [online], (Accessed June 12, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created May 31, 2005, Updated October 12, 2021