Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Spinor Bose-Einstein condensate phase-sensitive amplifier for SU(1,1) interferometry



Jonathan Wrubel, Arne Schwettmann, Donald P. Fahey, Glassmann Zachary, Heywon Pechkis, Paul Griffin, Ryan Barnett, Eite Tiesinga


The SU(1,1) interferometer was originally conceived as a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with the beam-splitters replaced by parametric amplifiers. The parametric amplifiers produce states with correlations that result in enhanced phase sensitivity. F = 1 spinor Bose- Einstein condensates (BECs) can serve as the parametric amplifiers for an atomic version of such an interferometer by collisionally producing entangled pairs of |F = 1, m = ±1⟩ atoms. We simulate the effect of single and double-sided seeding of the inputs to the amplifier using the truncated-Wigner approximation. We find that single-sided seeding degrades the performance of the interferometer exactly at the phase the unseeded interferometer should operate the best. Double-sided seeding results in a phase- sensitive amplifier, where the maximal sensitivity is a function of the phase relationship between the input states of the amplifier. In both single and double- sided seeding we find there exists an optimal phase that achieves sensitivity beyond the standard quantum limit. Experimentally, we demonstrate a spinor phase-sensitive amplifier using a BEC of 23Na in an optical dipole trap. This configuration could be used as an input to such an interferometer. We are able to control the initial phase of the double-seeded amplifier, and demonstrate sensitivity to initial population fractions as small as 0.1%.
Physical Review A (Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics)


Bose-Einstein condensation, atom interferometers, Laser Cooling, spin dynamics, spinor condensates


Wrubel, J. , Schwettmann, A. , Fahey, D. , Zachary, G. , Pechkis, H. , Griffin, P. , Barnett, R. and Tiesinga, E. (2018), Spinor Bose-Einstein condensate phase-sensitive amplifier for SU(1,1) interferometry, Physical Review A (Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics), [online], (Accessed May 27, 2023)
Created August 15, 2018, Updated October 12, 2021