Spin-orbit coupled bosons in one dimension: Emergent gauge field and Lifshitz transition
Ian B. Spielman, William Cole, Junhyun Lee, Khan Mahmud, Yahya Alavirad, Jay Sau
We propose the two component spin-orbit coupled Bose liquid as a platform for studying quantum criticality in itinerant magnets. Apart from being pervasive in the solid state, quantum critical fluctuations in such itinerant systems often involve the emergence of a dynamical gauge field. In the presence of strong spin-independent interactions and spin-orbit coupling, the spinor Bose liquid we consider undergoes an interaction (or density) tuned quantum phase transition similar to those in itinerant magnetic solid state systems. Although the order parameter describes a broken Z2 spin symmetry, the associated phase is qualitatively distinct from the Ising phase as it is accompanied by a non-vanishing momentum which is generated by the gauge fluctuations at the phase transition. This quantum phase transition is distinct from the conventional Ising transition and has a dynamical critical exponent z≃2, typical of a Lifshitz transition. Our model describes 1D ultracold atoms with Raman-induced spin-orbit coupling, and provides a route to quantum emulation of a model dynamical gauge theory as well as exotic critical behavior of the Hertz-Millis type.