Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Species Formation and Burning Characteristics of Scaled Propane Compartment Fires



C J. Wieczorek, U Vandsburger, J E. Floyd


Fires occurring in dense occupancies such as hospitals, dormitories, and nursing homes pose a serious threat to occupants due to the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. This risk is becoming increasingly important as the population demographics of developed nations shifts toward the elderly who are more likely to reside in dense occupancies. Poisoning due to carbon monoxide is an issue that affects not only the occupants present in the rooms containing the fire, but also to those at adjacent and remote locations away from the fire. Before an assessment of the carbon monoxide poisoning risk to people in dense occupancies can be made, the formation of carbon monoxide in compartment fires must be fully understood and its levels, rates of formation, and transport fully quantifiable. Results from a series of tests have indicated that the products of complete combustion, oxygen and carbon dioxide, correlate well with the model for complete combustion for all three ventilation conditions tested. Examination of the products of incomplete combustion indicates results that differ from those of previous studies. Carbon monoxide levels appear to collapse to a single curve for all three ventilation conditions; however, the measured levels are approximately 30 % higher than those observed previously. The unburned hydrocarbon levels appear to be a more complicated function of both the GER and the door width.
Asia-Oceania Symposium on Fire Science and Technology


carbon monoxide, compartment fire, propane, species formation


Wieczorek, C. , Vandsburger, U. and Floyd, J. (2021), Species Formation and Burning Characteristics of Scaled Propane Compartment Fires, Asia-Oceania Symposium on Fire Science and Technology (Accessed May 24, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created October 12, 2021