Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Solubility of Capsaicin and Β-Carotene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and in Halocarbons



B N. Hansen, Allan H. Harvey, J P. Coelho, M F. Palavra, Thomas J. Bruno


We measured the solubilities of Β-carotene and capsaicin in supercritical carbon dioxide, and also in difluoromethane (R-32) and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R-134a) in the liquid phase at temperatures near and somewhat below their critical points. Β-carotene solubility was also measured in 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (R-143a). The temperatures of the measurements ranged from 35 C to 55 C for capsaicin (up to 85 C in R-32) and from 40 C to 70 C for Β-carotene. The solubilities were determined using an HPLC system for capsaicin and a static high pressure cell for Β-carotene, and the amounts of products extracted were measured spectroscopically. At similar temperatures and densities, the solubility of capsaicin in the alternative refrigerants was higher than that in carbon dioxide; there was not such a clear trend for Β-cartene. Where the data covered a sufficient density range, they (along with literature data for the solutes in carbon dioxide) where analyzed according to the semiempirical density-based model of Mendez-Santiago and Teja.
Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data


alternative refrigerants, beta-carotene, capsaicin, carbon dioxide, solubility, supercritical fluids


Hansen, B. , Harvey, A. , Coelho, J. , Palavra, M. and Bruno, T. (2001), Solubility of Capsaicin and Β-Carotene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and in Halocarbons, Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, [online], (Accessed May 29, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created September 1, 2001, Updated February 19, 2017