Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Soft X-ray spectroscopy with transition-edge sensors at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource beamline 10-1



Sang-Jun Lee, Charles Titus, Roberto A. Mori, Michael Baker, Douglas Bennett, Hsiao-Mei Cho, W.Bertrand (Randy) Doriese, Joseph Fowler, Kelly J. Gaffney, Allesandro Gallo, Johnathon Gard, Gene C. Hilton, Hoyoung Jang, Young I. Joe, Christopher Kenney, Jason Knight, Thomas Kroll, Jun-Sik Lee, Dale Li, Donhui Lu, Ronald Marks, Michael Minitti, Kelsey Morgan, Ogasawara Hirohito, Galen O'Neil, Carl D. Reintsema, Dan Schmidt, Dimosthenis Sokaras, Joel Ullom, Tsu-Chien Weng, Christopher Williams, Betty A. Young, Daniel Swetz, Kent D. Irwin, Dennis Nordlund


We present results obtained with a new soft X-ray spectrometer based on transition-edge sensors (TESs) composed of Mo/Cu bilayers coupled to bismuth absorbers. This spectrometer simultaneously provides excellent energy resolution, high detection efficiency, and broadband spectral coverage. The new spectrometer is optimized for incident X-ray energies below 2 keV. Each pixel serves as both a highly sensitive calorimeter and an X-ray absorber with near unity quantum efficiency. We have commissioned this 240-pixel TES spectrometer at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource beamline 10-1 (BL 10-1) and used it to probe the local electronic structure of sample materials with unprecedented sensitivity in the soft X-ray regime. As mounted, the TES spectrometer has a maximum detection solid angle of 2 x 10−3 sr. The energy resolution of all pixels combined is 1.5 eV full width at half maximum at 500 eV. We describe the performance of the TES spectrometer in terms of its energy resolution and count-rate capability and demonstrate its utility as a high throughput detector for synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy. Results from initial X-ray emission spectroscopy and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering experiments obtained with the spectrometer are presented.
Review of Scientific Instruments


tes, synchroton, slac, x-ray, spectrometer, xas, xes, rixs, transition edge sensor, incident, pixel, calorimeter, quantum efficiency, Lightsource, beamline, sensitivity


Lee, S. , Titus, C. , Mori, R. , Baker, M. , Bennett, D. , Cho, H. , Doriese, W. , Fowler, J. , Gaffney, K. , Gallo, A. , Gard, J. , Hilton, G. , Jang, H. , Joe, Y. , Kenney, C. , Knight, J. , Kroll, T. , Lee, J. , Li, D. , Lu, D. , Marks, R. , Minitti, M. , Morgan, K. , Hirohito, O. , O'Neil, G. , Reintsema, C. , Schmidt, D. , Sokaras, D. , Ullom, J. , Weng, T. , Williams, C. , Young, B. , Swetz, D. , Irwin, K. and Nordlund, D. (2019), Soft X-ray spectroscopy with transition-edge sensors at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource beamline 10-1, Review of Scientific Instruments, [online],, (Accessed May 18, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created November 4, 2019, Updated October 12, 2021