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Sodium Carbazolide and Derivatives as Solid-State Electrolytes for Sodium-Ion Batteries



Yang Yu, Jintao Wang, Zhaoxian Qin, Yingtong Lv, Qijun Pei, Khai C. Tan, Tengfei Zhang, Anan Wu, Hui Wu, Andrew S. Lipton, Ping Chen


Replacing widely used organic liquid electrolytes with solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) could effectively solve the safety issues in sodium-ion batteries. Efforts on seeking novel solid-state electrolytes have been continued for decades. However, issues about SSEs still exist, such as low ionic conductivity at ambient temperature, difficulty in manufacturing, low electrochemical stability, poor compatibility with electrodes, etc. Here, sodium carbazolide (Na-CZ) and its THF-coordinated derivatives are rationally fabricated as Na+ conductors, and two of their crystal structures are successfully solved. Among these materials, THF-coordinated complexes exhibit fast Na+ conductivities, i.e., 1.20×10-4 S cm-1 and 1.95×10-3 S cm-1 at 90 °C for Na-CZ-1THF and Na-CZ-2THF, respectively, which are among the top Na+ conductors under the same condition. Furthermore, stable Na+ plating/stripping is observed even over 400 h cycling, showing outstanding interfacial stability and compatibility against Na electrode. More advantages such as ease of synthesis, low-cost, and cold pressing for molding can be obtained. In situ NMR results revealed that the evaporation of THF may play an essential role in the Na+ migration, where the movement of THF creates defects/vacancies and facilitates the migration of Na+.
Angewandte Chemie-International Edition


fast ion conduction, electrolyte, sodium-ion battery, metal hydride


Yu, Y. , Wang, J. , Qin, Z. , Lv, Y. , Pei, Q. , Tan, K. , Zhang, T. , Wu, A. , Wu, H. , Lipton, A. and Chen, P. (2023), Sodium Carbazolide and Derivatives as Solid-State Electrolytes for Sodium-Ion Batteries, Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, [online], (Accessed May 18, 2024)


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Created June 26, 2023, Updated September 30, 2023