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Social and Economic Components of Resilient Multi-Hazard Building Design



Katherine Johnson, Juan Fung, Siamak Sattar, Christopher Segura, Therese P. McAllister, Steven McCabe


In 2017, U.S. damages from natural hazard events exceeded $300B, suggesting that current targets for building performance do not sufficiently mitigate loss. The significant costs borne by individuals, insurers, and government do not include impacts from social disruption, displacement, and subsequent economic and livelihood effects. In 2016, Congress mandated the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) develop a report (NIST SP 1224) describing the research needs, implementation activities, and engineering principles necessary to improve the performance of residential and commercial buildings subjected to natural hazards. An Immediate Occupancy Performance Objective (IOPO) could help preserve building and social functions post event, minimizing physical, social, and economic disaster. The stakeholder-informed NIST report sets forth items needed for multi-hazard building design that can support enhanced resilience decision-making. This paper highlights the social and economic considerations that require additional research, particularly with regard to feasibility and potential impacts from an IOPO. These topics must be considered prior to and throughout the IOPO development and implementation process to facilitate community successes in improving resilience to natural hazard events.
Natural Hazard Review-ASCE


immediate occupancy, building design, social science, resilience, natural hazards, building engineering and design


Johnson, K. , Fung, J. , Sattar, S. , Segura, C. , McAllister, T. and McCabe, S. (2019), Social and Economic Components of Resilient Multi-Hazard Building Design, Natural Hazard Review-ASCE, [online], (Accessed June 15, 2024)


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Created October 2, 2019, Updated October 12, 2021