Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

In Situ Testing and Calibrating of Z-Piezo of an Atomic Force Microscope



Joseph Fu


By scanning a slightly tilted, smooth surface with an atomic force microscope (AFM), it is possible to obtain hysteresis loops which contain information on the nonlinearity and hysteresis in the z axis of the AFM''s piezoelectric actuator. A 15% variation in vertical sensitivity was revealed by this PZT tube during vertical scans ranging in amplitude between 0.4 and 2.5 ?m, which could result in a high level of uncertainty in a vertical measurement. Therefore a separate vertical measuring system or a correction scheme is required for a precise and accurate measurement.
Review Scientific Instruments


Fu, J. (1995), In Situ Testing and Calibrating of Z-Piezo of an Atomic Force Microscope, Review Scientific Instruments (Accessed June 13, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created July 1, 1995, Updated February 19, 2017