Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

In situ Angstrom-to-Micrometer Characterization of the Structural and Microstructural Changes in Kaolinite on Heating using Ultra-Small-Angle, Small-Angle, and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS/SAXS/WAXS)

Published

Author(s)

Fan Zhang, Andrew J. Allen, Greeshma Gadikota

Abstract

In this study, synchrotron-based in-operando multi-scale X-ray scattering analyses are used to connect the microstructural changes to the phase changes in kaolinite on heating from 30 °C to 1150 °C. Combined ultra-small-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS and SAXS) data are modeled to determine the hierarchical morphology of kaolinite comprising nano-scale interlayer pores, meso-scale pores, and larger interparticle voids, while wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) data reveal the simultaneous evolution of atomic structures in kaolinite. We found that the transformation of kaolinite to metakaolin corresponds to the disappearance of nano-scale porosity, and the onset of sintered phases such as mullite is consistent with the overall reduction in the porosity of kaolinite. The emergence of nano-scale particulate features in the reciprocal-vector, q, range of 0.04 Å-1 to 0.4 Å-1 on heating in excess of 900 °C corresponds to the onset of the sintered phases such as spinel and mullite. This study illustrates the application of multi-scale X-ray scattering measurements which encompass USAXS, SAXS and WAXS to connect the thermally induced phase changes with changes in pore structure and fine morphology evolution.
Citation
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Volume
56
Issue
41

Keywords

kaolinite, mall angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), microstructure characterization, phase composition

Citation

Zhang, F. , Allen, A. and Gadikota, G. (2017), In situ Angstrom-to-Micrometer Characterization of the Structural and Microstructural Changes in Kaolinite on Heating using Ultra-Small-Angle, Small-Angle, and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS/SAXS/WAXS), Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, [online], https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.7b02810 (Accessed June 23, 2024)

Issues

If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact reflib@nist.gov.

Created September 25, 2017, Updated October 12, 2021