Single-shot security for one-time memories in the isolated qubits model
One-time memories (OTM's) are simple, tamper-resistant cryptographic devices, which can be used to implement sophisticated functionalities such as one-time programs. OTM's cannot exist in a fully-classical world, or in a fully-quantum world, but there is evidence that they can be built using "isolated qubits" -- qubits that can only be accessed using local operations and classical communication (LOCC). Here we present new constructions for OTM's using isolated qubits, which improve on previous work in several respects: they achieve a stronger "single-shot" security guarantee, which is stated in terms of the (smoothed) min-entropy; they are proven secure against general LOCC adversaries; and they are efficiently implementable. These results use Wiesner's idea of conjugate coding, combined with error-correcting codes that approach the capacity of the q-ary symmetric channel, and a high-order entropic uncertainty relation, which was originally developed for cryptography in the bounded quantum storage model.
34th Annual Cryptology Conference, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, August 17-21, 2014, Proceedings, Part II