Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Silicon Nanostructures Fabricated by Scanning Probe Lithography and TMAH Etching



F S. Chien, W F. Hsieh, S Gwo, Andras Vladar, John A. Dagata


Fabrication of silicon nanostructures is a key technique for the development of monolithically integrated optoelectronic circuits. We demonstrate that the process of scanning probe lithography (SPL) and anisotropic TMAH etching is a low-cost and reliable method to produce smooth and uniform silicon nanostructures on a variety of silicon substrates. Etched structures with a pitch of 100 nm, positive- and negative-contrast structures, and features height greater than 100 nm have been produced on bare silicon, Si3N4-coated and silicon-on-insulator wafers. Evolution of hexagonal pits on two-dimensional grid structures are shown to depend on the pattern spacing and orientation with respect to (110)-silicon crystal directions. We successfully combined SPL with traditional optical lithographyin a mixed, multilevel patterning method for realizing micrometer- and nanometer-scale feature sizes, as required for photonic device designs. The process of SPL + TMAH etching is a promising approach to rapid prototyping of functional nano-pholonic devices.
Journal of Applied Physics
91 No. 1044


anisotropic etching, nanostructures, optoelectronics, scanning probe microscopy


Chien, F. , Hsieh, W. , Gwo, S. , Vladar, A. and Dagata, J. (2002), Silicon Nanostructures Fabricated by Scanning Probe Lithography and TMAH Etching, Journal of Applied Physics (Accessed April 19, 2024)
Created December 31, 2001, Updated October 12, 2021