Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Silicide Barrier SNS Junctions for AC Josephson Voltage Standards



Paul Dresselhaus, Yonuk Chong, Nicolas Hadacek, Burm Baek, Michio Watanabe, Charles J. Burroughs, Samuel Benz


We have used MoSi2 barrier superconductor-normal-metal-superconductor (SNS) double stacked junctions to generate audio frequency ac waveforms with metrological accuracy. Circuits used in this experiment were two parallel arrays of 1280 stacks of 2 junctions per stack for a total of 5120 junctions per chip. Eliminating cross-talk between circuits, optimizing the output filter design, and implementing our flip-chip-on-flex technology allowed us for the first time to increase the operating margins to ' 1.5 mA on the dc bias while retaining 95 dBc or better of distortion. These improvements allowed us to carefully investigate the metrology performance of the synthesized waveforms using a commercially available ac/dc thermal transfer standard. We measured ac/dc differences of less than 5 uV/V from 1 kHz to 5 kHz at an rms voltage of 100.00 mV. The ac Josephson reference has been found to be more stable and quieter than conventional voltage calibrators.
Proceedings Title
Extended Abstracts, Intl. Superconductive Electronics Conf. (ISEC)
Conference Dates
September 6-9, 2005
Conference Location
Amsterdam, 1, NL
Conference Title
Intl. Superconductive Electronics Conf.


Digital analog converter, josephson arrays, superconducting devices, superconducting films, thin film devices.


Dresselhaus, P. , Chong, Y. , Hadacek, N. , Baek, B. , Watanabe, M. , Burroughs, C. and Benz, S. (2005), Silicide Barrier SNS Junctions for AC Josephson Voltage Standards, Extended Abstracts, Intl. Superconductive Electronics Conf. (ISEC), Amsterdam, 1, NL, [online], (Accessed April 15, 2024)
Created September 4, 2005, Updated October 12, 2021