Sigma Ballots

Published: July 21, 2010


Stefan Popoveniuc, Andrew R. Regenscheid


We present Sigma ballots, a new type of ballot to be used in secure elections. Sigma ballots use the random order of candidates introduced by Pret a Voter, combined with the confirmation codes of Scantegrity II. These ballots can be produces by a DRE machine with a slightly modified VVPAT, or can be similar to optical scan ballots. Sigma ballots work in conjunction with existing publicly verifiable tallying schemes to allow for end-to-end verifiability. The advantages of Sigma ballots include an easy check for correct printing, the possibility of keeping a fixed order of candidates when selections are made, automated creation of receipts, no extra marks added to the ballot after it was cast, ability to be hand counted, and voters only needing to know a valid confirmation code to file a complaint.
Proceedings Title: Electronic Voting 2010 (EVOTE2010)
Conference Dates: July 21-24, 2010
Conference Location: Bregenz, -1
Conference Title: 4th International Conference on Electronic Voting (EVOTE2010)
Pub Type: Conferences

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voting, voting system, cryptographic voting system, E2E, end-to-end
Created July 21, 2010, Updated February 19, 2017