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Sigma Ballots



Stefan Popoveniuc, Andrew Regenscheid


We present Sigma ballots, a new type of ballot to be used in secure elections. Sigma ballots use the random order of candidates introduced by Pret a Voter, combined with the confirmation codes of Scantegrity II. These ballots can be produces by a DRE machine with a slightly modified VVPAT, or can be similar to optical scan ballots. Sigma ballots work in conjunction with existing publicly verifiable tallying schemes to allow for end-to-end verifiability. The advantages of Sigma ballots include an easy check for correct printing, the possibility of keeping a fixed order of candidates when selections are made, automated creation of receipts, no extra marks added to the ballot after it was cast, ability to be hand counted, and voters only needing to know a valid confirmation code to file a complaint.
Proceedings Title
Electronic Voting 2010 (EVOTE2010)
Conference Dates
July 21-24, 2010
Conference Location
Bregenz, AT
Conference Title
4th International Conference on Electronic Voting (EVOTE2010)


voting, voting system, cryptographic voting system, E2E, end-to-end


Popoveniuc, S. and Regenscheid, A. (2010), Sigma Ballots, Electronic Voting 2010 (EVOTE2010), Bregenz, AT, [online], (Accessed May 28, 2024)


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Created July 20, 2010, Updated October 12, 2021