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SHA-3 Standard: Permutation-Based Hash and Extendable-Output Functions



Morris J. Dworkin


This Standard specifies the Secure Hash Algorithm-3 (SHA-3) family of functions on binary data. Each of the SHA-3 functions is based on an instance of the KECCAK algorithm that NIST selected as the winner of the SHA-3 Cryptographic Hash Algorithm Competition. This Standard also specifies the KECCAK-p family of mathematical permutations, including the permutation that underlies KECCAK, in order to facilitate the development of additional permutation-based cryptographic functions. The SHA-3 family consists of four cryptographic hash functions, called SHA3-224, SHA3-256, SHA3-384, and SHA3-512, and two extendable-output functions (XOFs), called SHAKE128 and SHAKE256. Hash functions are components for many important information security applications, including 1) the generation and verification of digital signatures, 2) key derivation, and 3) pseudorandom bit generation. The hash functions specified in this Standard supplement the SHA-1 hash function and the SHA-2 family of hash functions that are specified in FIPS 180-4, the Secure Hash Standard. Extendable-output functions are different from hash functions, but it is possible to use them in similar ways, with the flexibility to be adapted directly to the requirements of individual applications, subject to additional security considerations.
Federal Inf. Process. Stds. (NIST FIPS) - 202
Report Number


computer security, cryptography, extendable-output function, Federal Information Processing Standard, hash algorithm, hash function, information security, KECCAK, message digest, permutation, SHA-3, sponge construction, sponge function, XOF.


Dworkin, M. (2015), SHA-3 Standard: Permutation-Based Hash and Extendable-Output Functions, Federal Inf. Process. Stds. (NIST FIPS), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed July 22, 2024)


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Created August 4, 2015, Updated November 10, 2018