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Self Hardening Calcium Phosphate Composite Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering



H H. Xu, Carl Simon Jr.


Calcium phosphatement (CPC) sets in situ to form solid hydroxyapatite, can conform to complex cavity shapes without machining, has excellent osteoconductivity, and is able to be resorbed and replaced by new bone. Therefore, CPC is promising for craniofacial and orthopaedic repairs. However, its low strength and lack of macroporosity limit its use. This study investigated CPC reinforcement with absorbable fibers, the effects of fiber volume fraction on mechanical properties and macroporosity, and the biocompatibility of CPC-fiber composite. The rationale was that large-diameter absorbable fibers would initially strengthen the CPC graft, then dissolve to form long cylindrical macropores for colonization by osteoblasts. Flexural strength, work-of-fracture (toughyness), and elastic modulus were measured vs. fiber volume fraction from 0 % (CPC Control without fibers) to 60 %. Cell culture was performed with osteoblast-like cells, and cell viability was quantified using an enzymatic assay. Flexural strength (mean SD; n = 6) of CPC with 60 % fibers was (13.5 4.4) MPa, three times higher than (3.9 0.5) MPa of CPC control. Work-of-fracture was increased by 182 times. Long cylindrical macropores of (293 46) m in diameter were created in CPC after fiber dissolution, and the CPC-fiber scaffold reached a macroporosity of 55 % and a total porosity of 81 %. The new CPC-fiber formulation supported cell adhesion, proliferation and viability. the method of using large-diameter absorbable fibers in bone graft for mechanical properties and formation of long cylindrical macropores for bone ingrowth may be applicable to other tissue engineering materials.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research
No. 3


absorbable fibers, biocompatibility, calcium phosphate cement, cell culture, hydroxapatite, reinforcement, scaffold


Xu, H. and Simon Jr., C. (2004), Self Hardening Calcium Phosphate Composite Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, [online], (Accessed July 14, 2024)


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Created April 30, 2004, Updated October 12, 2021