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Second Chern number of a quantum-simulated non-Abelian Yang monopole



Ian B. Spielman, Francisco Salces Carcoba, Yuchen Yue, Abigail Perry, Seiji Sugawa


Topological order is often quantified in terms of Chern numbers, each of which classifies a topological singularity. Here, inspired by concepts from high-energy physics, we use quantum simulation based on the spin degrees of freedom of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates to characterize a singularity present in five-dimensional non-Abelian gauge theories—a Yang monopole. We quantify the monopole in terms of Chern numbers measured on enclosing manifolds: Whereas the well-known first Chern number vanishes, the second Chern number does not. By displacing the manifold, we induce and observe a topological transition, where the topology of the manifold changes to a trivial state.


Magnetic monopole, Yang-Mills field theory, Bose-Einstein condensate


Spielman, I. , Salces, F. , Yue, Y. , Perry, A. and Sugawa, S. (2018), Second Chern number of a quantum-simulated non-Abelian Yang monopole, Science (Accessed December 2, 2023)
Created June 29, 2018, Updated October 24, 2018