Sample Preparation Protocols for Realization of Reproducible Characterization of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes
Angela R. Hight Walker, Jeffrey A. Fagan, Stephanie A. Hooker, Michael T. Postek, Stephen A. Wise, Andras Vladar, Rolf L. Zeisler
Harmonized sample pre-treatment is an integral first step in ensuring metrological quality of measurements as regards repeatability, inter-laboratory reproducibility and commutability. The development of standard preparation methods for SWCNT samples is therefore essential to progress in their investigation and eventual commercialization. Here, prescriptive descriptions of sample preparation and pre-treatment for the physicochemical characterization of single-walled carbon nanotube samples (SWCNT) are provided. Analytical methodologies targeted by these protocols include: inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), neutron activation analysis (NAA), Raman spectroscopy (dry, wet), UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM; dry, wet), transmission electron microscopy (TEM; dry, wet), atomic force microscopy (AFM), manometric isothermal gas adsorption and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Although sample preparation refers to these specific methods, application to other methods for measurement and characterization of SWCNTs can be envisioned.