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A Robust Algorithm for PAM4 Eye-Diagram Analysis



Jeffrey Jargon, Jerome Cheron


We propose a new approach for analyzing PAM4 (pulse amplitude modulation 4-level) eye diagrams that always provides a unique solution by making use of a K-Means algorithm in conjunction with a robust, shortest interval location estimator. Our motivation for developing this technique is to create an independent, nonproprietary method that can be used to compare and verify existing algorithms. Utilizing our approach, we calculate various parameters that have been developed for PAM4 standards, including the time midpoint of the middle eye, eye amplitudes, inner eye widths, and inner eye heights. We compare our results to those of a commercial channel simulator and obtain excellent agreement.
Proceedings Title
Proceedings of the Asia Pacific Microwave Conference
Conference Dates
November 28-December 1, 2021
Conference Location
Brisbane, AU
Conference Title
Asia Pacific Microwave Conference


algorithm, comparison, eye diagram, K-Means clustering, pulse amplitude modulation 4-level, shortest interval location estimator


Jargon, J. and Cheron, J. (2021), A Robust Algorithm for PAM4 Eye-Diagram Analysis, Proceedings of the Asia Pacific Microwave Conference, Brisbane, AU, [online], (Accessed July 14, 2024)


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Created December 20, 2021, Updated November 29, 2022