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A Review of Halogenated Natural Products in Arctic, Subarctic and Nordic Ecosystems



Terry Bidleman, Agneta Andersson, Liisa Jantunen, John Kucklick, Henrik Kylin, Robert Letcher, Mats Tysklind, Fiona Wong


Halogenated natural products (HNPs) are organic compounds containing bromine, chlorine, iodine, and sometimes fluorine. HNPs comprises many classes of compounds, ranging in complexity from halocarbons (mostly halomethanes and haloethanes) to higher molecular weight compounds, which often contain oxygen and/or nitrogen atoms in addition to halogens (Ballschmiter, 2003; Gribble, 2003). Many HNPs are biosynthesized by marine bacteria, macroalgae, phytoplankton, tunicates, corals, worms, sponges and other invertebrates (Agarwal et al., 2014, 2015; Ballschmiter, 2003; Coutinho et al., 2018; Gribble, 2003, 2010, 2015; Vetter, 2006; Vetter and Gribble, 2007, Vetter et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2014). Terrestrial plants, lichens, bacteria and fungi also produce HNPs (Gribble, 2003) and they are found in freshwater environments (Bradley et al., 2011; Kim et al., 2014; Peng et al., 2015, 2016; Ueno et al., 2008). Thousands of HNP compounds have been discovered (Gribble, 2003, 2010, 2015; Peng et al., 2015, 2016; Vetter and Gribble, 2007).
Emerging Contaminants


arctic, emerging contaminant, bioaccumulation, physical property


Bidleman, T. , Andersson, A. , Jantunen, L. , Kucklick, J. , Kylin, H. , Letcher, R. , Tysklind, M. and Wong, F. (2019), A Review of Halogenated Natural Products in Arctic, Subarctic and Nordic Ecosystems, Emerging Contaminants, [online], (Accessed March 4, 2024)
Created February 19, 2019, Updated August 15, 2022